Month: January 2016

The Curly Kale 01 – Research links & colour theory.

Bitmap conversion. https://helpx.adobe.com/photoshop/using/converting-color-modes.html

Mostra Nuovo Font http://www.myfonts.com/fonts/marksimonson/mostra-nuova/

http://www.thedieline.com/blog/2009/5/12/top-15-fonts-for-packaging-design.html

Didot Font http://www.typography.com/fonts/didot/overview/

W3Schools colour charts. http://www.w3schools.com/tags/ref_colorgroups.asp

HTML Pastel colour charts. http://www.hitmill.com/html/pastels.html

Color theory was originally formulated in terms of three “primary” or “primitive” colors—red, yellow and blue (RYB)—because these colors were believed capable of mixing all other colors. This color mixing behavior had long been known to printers, dyers and painters, but these trades preferred pure pigments to primary color mixtures, because the mixtures were too dull (unsaturated).

Johannes Itten -1888 –  1967, was a Swiss expressionist painter, designer, teacher, writer and theorist associated with the Bauhaus school. Together with German-American painter Lyonel Feininger and German sculptor Gerhard Marcks, under the direction of German architect Walter Gropius, Itten was part of the core of the Weimar Bauhaus.

From 1919 to 1922, Itten taught at the Bauhaus, developing the innovative “preliminary course” which was to teach students the basics of material characteristics, composition, and color. In 1920 Itten invited Paul Klee and Georg Muche to join him at the Bauhaus. He also published a book, The Art of Color, which describes these ideas as a furthering of Adolf Hölzel’s color wheel. Itten’s so called “color sphere” went on to include 12 colors.

Warm vs. cool colors

The distinction between ‘warm’ and ‘cool’ colors has been important since at least the late 18th century.[1] It is generally not remarked in modern color science or colorimetry in reference to painting, but is still used in design practices today.

Warm colors are often said to be hues from red through yellow, browns and tans included; cool colors are often said to be the hues from blue green through blue violet, most grays included. There is historical disagreement about the colors that anchor the polarity, but 19th-century sources put the peak contrast between red orange and greenish blue.

Color theory has described perceptual and psychological effects to this contrast. Warm colors are said to advance or appear more active in a painting, while cool colors tend to recede; used in interior design or fashion, warm colors are said to arouse or stimulate the viewer, while cool colors calm and relax. Most of these effects, to the extent they are real, can be attributed to the higher saturation and lighter value of warm pigments in contrast to cool pigments. Thus, brown is a dark, unsaturated warm color that few people think of as visually active or psychologically arousing.

Achromatic colors

Any color that lacks strong chromatic content is said to be unsaturated, achromatic, near neutral, or neutral. Near neutrals include browns, tans, pastels and darker colors. Near neutrals can be of any hue or lightness. Pure achromatic, or neutral colors include black, white and all grays.

Near neutrals are obtained by mixing pure colors with white, black or grey, or by mixing two complementary colors. In color theory, neutral colors are easily modified by adjacent more saturated colors and they appear to take on the hue complementary to the saturated color; e.g.: next to a bright red couch, a gray wall will appear distinctly greenish.

Black and white have long been known to combine well with almost any other colors; black decreases the apparent saturation or brightness of colors paired with it, and white shows off all hues to equal effect.

 

Color psychology is the study of hues as a determinant of human behavior. Color influences perceptions that are not obvious, such as the taste of food. Colors can also work as placebos by having the color of pills be certain colors to influence how a person feels after taking them. For example, red or orange pills are generally used as stimulants.Color can indeed influence a person, however it is important to remember that these effects differ between people. Factors such as gender, age, and culture can influence how an individual perceives color. For example, males reported that red colored outfits made women seem more attractive, while women answered that the color of a male’s outfit did not affect his attractiveness.

 

Influence of color on perception

Perceptions not obviously related to color, such as the palatability of food, may in fact be partially determined by color. Not only the color of the food itself but also that of everything in the eater’s field of vision can affect this.

Placebo effect

The color of placebo pills is reported to be a factor in their effectiveness, with “hot-colored” pills working better as stimulants and “cool-colored” pills working better as depressants. This relationship is believed to be a consequence of the patient’s expectations and not a direct effect of the color itself.[2] Consequently, these effects appear to be culture-dependent.

Uses in marketing

Since color is an important factor in the visual appearance of products as well as in brand recognition, color psychology has become important to marketing. Recent work in marketing has shown that color can be used to communicate brand personality.

Marketers must be aware of the application of color in different media (e.g. print vs. web), as well as the varying meanings and emotions that a particular audience can assign to color.

Research on the effects of color on product preference and marketing shows that product color could affect consumer preference and hence purchasing culture. Most results show that it is not a specific color that attracts all audiences, but that certain colors are deemed appropriate for certain products.Color is a very influential source of information when people are making a purchasing decision. Customers generally make an initial judgment on a product within 90 seconds of interaction with that product and about 62%-90% of that judgment is based on color. People often see the logo of a brand or company as a representation of that company.

Specific color meaning

Different colors are perceived to mean different things. For example, tones of red lead to feelings of arousal while blue tones are often associated with feelings of relaxation. Both of these emotions are pleasant, so therefore, the colors themselves procure positive feelings in advertisements. The chart below gives perceived meanings of different colors in the United States.

Functional (F): fulfills a need or solves a problem

Sensory-Social (S): conveys attitudes, status, or social approval.

Red Yellow Green Blue Pink Violet/Purple Brown Black White
Lust (S)[23] Jealousy (S)[23] Good Taste (F)[23] Masculine (S)[23] Sophistication (S)[21] Authority (S)[23] Ruggedness (S)[21] Grief (S)[23] Happiness (S)[23]
Negative Issues (F)[24] Competence (S)[21] Envy (S)[23] Competence (S)[21] Sincerity (S)[21] Sophistication (S)[21] Sophistication (S)[21] Sincerity (S)[21]
Excitement (S)[21] Happiness (S)[23] High quality (F)[23] Power (S)[23] Expensive (F)[23] Purity (S)[23]
Love (S)[23] Corporate (F)[23] Fear (S)[23]

Combining colors

Although some companies use a single color to represent their brand such as Target Corporation, many other companies use a combination of colors in their logo, such as McDonald’s, and can be perceived in different ways than those colors independently.

 

Attracting attention

Color is used as a means to attract consumer attention to a product that then influences buying behavior.[30] Consumers use color to identify for known brands or search for new alternatives. Variety seekers look for non-typical colors when selecting new brands. And attractive color packaging receives more consumer attention than unattractive color packaging, which can then influence buying behavior.

If a company is changing the look of a product, but keeping the product the same, they consider keeping the same color scheme since people use color to identify and search for brands.[30] This can be seen in Crayola crayons, where the logo has changed many times since 1934, but the basic package colors, gold and green, have been kept throughout.

Culture

Many cultural differences exist on perceived color personality, meaning, and preference. When deciding on brand and product logos, companies should take into account their target consumer, since cultural differences exist. A study looked at color preference in British and Chinese participants.[35] Each participant was presented with a total of 20 color swatches one at a time and had to rate the color on 10 different emotions. Results showed that British participants and Chinese participants differed on the like-dislike scale the most. Chinese participants tended to like colors that they self rated as clean, fresh, and modern, whereas British participants showed no such pattern. When evaluating purchasing intent, color preference affects buying behavior, where liked colors are more likely to be bought than disliked colors.[30] This implies that companies should consider choosing their target consumer first and then make product colors based on the target’s color preferences.

 

Source – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_psychology

 

 

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Writing a design Brief

The definition of a company’s “Position”. http://www.entrepreneur.com/encyclopedia/positioning

A document produced to describe the goals of a positioning strategy for a product or brand. A typical product position statement will describe how the business distinguishes its product from those of its competitors, how customers can benefit from the product’s features, and how these benefits will be promoted to the target market for the product.

Positioning: How you differentiate your product or service from that of your competitors and then determine which market niche to fill .
What is the ABC1 Rating…???? http://www.abc1demographic.co.uk/ Very interesting reading.

 

http://justcreative.com/2008/09/26/how-to-write-an-effective-design-brief/

http://www.cleardesignuk.com/design-brief.html

http://www.marketingdonut.co.uk/marketing/advertising/choosing-an-advertising-agency/writing-a-brief-a-template-for-briefing-copywriters-and-designers

http://www.adcracker.com/brief/Sample_Creative_Brief.htm ***

Design Brief

Historical Image, Font & Palette Task.

The purpose of this task is to choose an image from 3 Art Style Movements, select a colour palette that is associated with this movement & also choose a font that is also associated with the movement.

The 3 Style Movements that I have chosen are Art Deco, Pop Art & De Stijl.

The fonts I have used are Bifur for Art Deco, the reviled Comic Sans for the Pop art & Theo Van Doesburg for the De Stijl movement.

They are not 3 fonts that I would choose to use often myself, Bifur is very difficult to read with all the lines & shading through the letters. Theo Van Doesburg is a very blocky font, not that easy to read & would only have a limited number of uses. I wouldn’t normally use Comic Sans either because its…..well, its Comic Sans.

Here is the final image created for the task.

Colour & Font Palettes task_LoRes

Colour Theory & Colour Psychology

Color theory was originally formulated in terms of three “primary” or “primitive” colors—red, yellow and blue (RYB)—because these colors were believed capable of mixing all other colors. This color mixing behavior had long been known to printers, dyers and painters, but these trades preferred pure pigments to primary color mixtures, because the mixtures were too dull (unsaturated).

Johannes Itten -1888 –  1967, was a Swiss expressionist painter, designer, teacher, writer and theorist associated with the Bauhaus school. Together with German-American painter Lyonel Feininger and German sculptor Gerhard Marcks, under the direction of German architect Walter Gropius, Itten was part of the core of the Weimar Bauhaus.

From 1919 to 1922, Itten taught at the Bauhaus, developing the innovative “preliminary course” which was to teach students the basics of material characteristics, composition, and color. In 1920 Itten invited Paul Klee and Georg Muche to join him at the Bauhaus. He also published a book, The Art of Color, which describes these ideas as a furthering of Adolf Hölzel’s color wheel. Itten’s so called “color sphere” went on to include 12 colors.

Warm vs. cool colors

The distinction between ‘warm’ and ‘cool’ colors has been important since at least the late 18th century.[1] It is generally not remarked in modern color science or colorimetry in reference to painting, but is still used in design practices today.

Warm colors are often said to be hues from red through yellow, browns and tans included; cool colors are often said to be the hues from blue green through blue violet, most grays included. There is historical disagreement about the colors that anchor the polarity, but 19th-century sources put the peak contrast between red orange and greenish blue.

Color theory has described perceptual and psychological effects to this contrast. Warm colors are said to advance or appear more active in a painting, while cool colors tend to recede; used in interior design or fashion, warm colors are said to arouse or stimulate the viewer, while cool colors calm and relax. Most of these effects, to the extent they are real, can be attributed to the higher saturation and lighter value of warm pigments in contrast to cool pigments. Thus, brown is a dark, unsaturated warm color that few people think of as visually active or psychologically arousing.

Achromatic colors

Any color that lacks strong chromatic content is said to be unsaturated, achromatic, near neutral, or neutral. Near neutrals include browns, tans, pastels and darker colors. Near neutrals can be of any hue or lightness. Pure achromatic, or neutral colors include black, white and all grays.

Near neutrals are obtained by mixing pure colors with white, black or grey, or by mixing two complementary colors. In color theory, neutral colors are easily modified by adjacent more saturated colors and they appear to take on the hue complementary to the saturated color; e.g.: next to a bright red couch, a gray wall will appear distinctly greenish.

Black and white have long been known to combine well with almost any other colors; black decreases the apparent saturation or brightness of colors paired with it, and white shows off all hues to equal effect.

Color psychology is the study of hues as a determinant of human behavior. Color influences perceptions that are not obvious, such as the taste of food. Colors can also work as placebos by having the color of pills be certain colors to influence how a person feels after taking them. For example, red or orange pills are generally used as stimulants.Color can indeed influence a person, however it is important to remember that these effects differ between people. Factors such as gender, age, and culture can influence how an individual perceives color. For example, males reported that red colored outfits made women seem more attractive, while women answered that the color of a male’s outfit did not affect his attractiveness.

Influence of color on perception

Perceptions not obviously related to color, such as the palatability of food, may in fact be partially determined by color. Not only the color of the food itself but also that of everything in the eater’s field of vision can affect this.

Placebo effect

The color of placebo pills is reported to be a factor in their effectiveness, with “hot-colored” pills working better as stimulants and “cool-colored” pills working better as depressants. This relationship is believed to be a consequence of the patient’s expectations and not a direct effect of the color itself.[2] Consequently, these effects appear to be culture-dependent.

Uses in marketing

Since color is an important factor in the visual appearance of products as well as in brand recognition, color psychology has become important to marketing. Recent work in marketing has shown that color can be used to communicate brand personality.

Marketers must be aware of the application of color in different media (e.g. print vs. web), as well as the varying meanings and emotions that a particular audience can assign to color.

Research on the effects of color on product preference and marketing shows that product color could affect consumer preference and hence purchasing culture. Most results show that it is not a specific color that attracts all audiences, but that certain colors are deemed appropriate for certain products.Color is a very influential source of information when people are making a purchasing decision. Customers generally make an initial judgment on a product within 90 seconds of interaction with that product and about 62%-90% of that judgment is based on color. People often see the logo of a brand or company as a representation of that company.

Specific color meaning

Different colors are perceived to mean different things. For example, tones of red lead to feelings of arousal while blue tones are often associated with feelings of relaxation. Both of these emotions are pleasant, so therefore, the colors themselves procure positive feelings in advertisements. The chart below gives perceived meanings of different colors in the United States.

Functional (F): fulfills a need or solves a problem

Sensory-Social (S): conveys attitudes, status, or social approval.

Red Yellow Green Blue Pink Violet/Purple Brown Black White
Lust (S)[23] Jealousy (S)[23] Good Taste (F)[23] Masculine (S)[23] Sophistication (S)[21] Authority (S)[23] Ruggedness (S)[21] Grief (S)[23] Happiness (S)[23]
Negative Issues (F)[24] Competence (S)[21] Envy (S)[23] Competence (S)[21] Sincerity (S)[21] Sophistication (S)[21] Sophistication (S)[21] Sincerity (S)[21]
Excitement (S)[21] Happiness (S)[23] High quality (F)[23] Power (S)[23] Expensive (F)[23] Purity (S)[23]
Love (S)[23] Corporate (F)[23] Fear (S)[23]

Combining colors

Although some companies use a single color to represent their brand such as Target Corporation, many other companies use a combination of colors in their logo, such as McDonald’s, and can be perceived in different ways than those colors independently.

Attracting attention

Color is used as a means to attract consumer attention to a product that then influences buying behavior. Consumers use color to identify for known brands or search for new alternatives. Variety seekers look for non-typical colors when selecting new brands. And attractive color packaging receives more consumer attention than unattractive color packaging, which can then influence buying behavior.

If a company is changing the look of a product, but keeping the product the same, they consider keeping the same color scheme since people use color to identify and search for brands.[30] This can be seen in Crayola crayons, where the logo has changed many times since 1934, but the basic package colors, gold and green, have been kept throughout.

Culture

Many cultural differences exist on perceived color personality, meaning, and preference. When deciding on brand and product logos, companies should take into account their target consumer, since cultural differences exist. A study looked at color preference in British and Chinese participants.[35] Each participant was presented with a total of 20 color swatches one at a time and had to rate the color on 10 different emotions. Results showed that British participants and Chinese participants differed on the like-dislike scale the most. Chinese participants tended to like colors that they self rated as clean, fresh, and modern, whereas British participants showed no such pattern. When evaluating purchasing intent, color preference affects buying behavior, where liked colors are more likely to be bought than disliked colors.[30] This implies that companies should consider choosing their target consumer first and then make product colors based on the target’s color preferences.

 

Branding Personalities.

The Psychology of Color in Marketing and Branding

 

When Did Girls Start Wearing Pink?

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/when-did-girls-start-wearing-pink-1370097/?no-ist=

 

Prob the simplest explanation of Colour Psychology.  http://coschedule.com/blog/color-psychology-marketing/

Source – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_psychology

W3Schools colour charts. http://www.w3schools.com/tags/ref_colorgroups.asp

HTML Pastel colour charts. http://www.hitmill.com/html/pastels.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Itten

A very Looong but good article. Colour Meanings – http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/232582

 

Futurisim

Natalia Goncharova, Cyclist, 1913

Futurism was a movement, begun largely in Italy, that concerned its self with the promotion of all things new and took speed, technology and modernity as its inspiration.

 It tried to portray a dynamic aspect to the character of the 20th century. It glorified war and the machine age and even favoured the growth of Fascism. It rejoiced in the arrival of the 1st world war & was violently opposed to anything from the past. (1)
 The multiple outlines of elements in this painting by Natalia Goncharova is a great example of showing movement & 3 dimensionality in a 2D painting.
The movement began in 1909 when the poet Filippo Marinetti published his Futurist Manifesto in a French newspaper. He expressed a passionate loathing of everything old, especially political and artistic tradition. “We want no part of it, the past”, he wrote, “we the young and strong Futurists!” The Futurists admired speed, technology, youth and violence, the car, the airplane and the industrial city, all that represented the technological triumph of humanity over nature, and they were passionate nationalists. They repudiated the cult of the past and all imitation, praised originality, “however daring, however violent”, bore proudly “the smear of madness”, dismissed art critics as useless, rebelled against harmony and good taste, swept away all the themes and subjects of all previous art, and gloried in science. (2)
Key Figures.
The Futurists practiced in every medium of art including painting, sculpture, ceramics, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, urban design, theatre, film, fashion, textiles, literature, music, architecture, and even gastronomy. Some of its key figures were the Italians Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Umberto Boccioni, Antonio Sant’Elia, and the russian Vladimir Mayakovsky.

Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, an Itallian/French author & poet is responsible for writing the first Futurist Manifesto and printing it in the French newspaper Le Figaro, it’s self a statement on the use of modern tools to convey their message. After a minor car accident in 1908 Marinetti declared to his associates that they should end every artistic relationship with the past, “destroy the museums, the libraries, every type of academy”. He was a strong voice for the involvement of Italy in the Great War and, once joined, signed up for service.

Umberto Boccioni, 1913, Synthesis of Human Dynamism, sculpture destroyed

Umberto Boccioni, who died in a training exercise in 1016 at the age of just 33, was an influential voice for the Futurist movement. He wrote 2 manifestos for the group & produced a prolific amount of work in medium such as painting & sculpture.

His Futurist driven sculptures such as the work “Synthesis of Human Dynamism” shows, I think, an incredible detail in movement.

The work that is perhaps considered his masterpiece was sculpted in wax & only cast in bronze in 1931 and in 1998 was chosen for use on the reverse of the Italian 20 cent coin.

Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913, on the Italian 20 cent coin.
House with external elevators (1914)

Antonio Sant’Elia was an itallian builder & architect and was a key figure in the Futurist

movement. He was killed in the 1st world war at the young age of 28 & left nearly no completed works. However, his influential designs which featured vast monolithic skyscraper buildings with terraces, bridges and aerial walkways that embodied the sheer excitement of modern architecture and technology inspired designers, artists & architects around the world. In his 1927 movie Metropolis, Fritz Lang created scenes that could have come directly out of Sant’Elia’s sketch book. More recently Ridley Scott took inspiration from him in his movie Blade Runner.

 Influence of Futurism.
Although the impact of Italian Futurism was concentrated in the visual arts, it did inspire artists in other media: Vladimir Mayakovsky was important in developing a Futurist literature in Russia, and film makers such as Ridley Scott & Fritz Lang used it’s inspiration for their work.
Its influences can be seen in other styles such as the modern machine look in Art Deco & the modern style of animation in Anime & Manga.
Fritz Lang’s Metropolis.
Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner.

Cubist Movement

Cubism was one arguably one of the most influential visual art styles of the early twentieth century. Begun by the artists Pablo Picaso & Georges Braque after visiting a posthumous retrospective of the work of Paul Cezanne in 1907.

Where traditional artists strived to show the three dimensionality of the natural world through perspective, modeling & foreshortening, cubists rejected this approach & wanted instead to emphasize the two dimensionality of the canvas & endeavoured to show depth by using multiple & changing vantage points, fracturing their subjects up into geometric forms.

After a visit to Picaso’s studio in 1907 Picaso & Braque collaborated closely for many years, Braque being heavily influenced by the others style. The worked together daily, constantly comparing each others work & discussing ideas they had together. However, after Braque returned from World War 1 in 1914 he felt that Picaso had begun to paint figuratively & had betrayed their vision. He continued to be influenced by him however.

https://tirchhispelling.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/demoiselles-davignon1.jpg?w=664&h=670
Les Demoiselles d’Avignon

The painting above, Les Demoiselles d’Aviginion, was creaed in 1907 just before Braque’s visit to Picaso’s studio. Its believed to be the harbinger of the cubist movement.

A watershed moment for the development of Cubism was the posthumous retrospective of Paul Cézanne’s work at the Salon d’Automne in 1907. Cézanne’s use of generic forms to simplify nature was incredibly influential to both Picasso and Braque.

Both artists believed that traditions of western art were overrated & they took inspiration from other cultures such as from Africa.

Picaso – Head of a Sleeping Woman

Although Cubism was born in France it emigrated across Europe and integrated with the artistic consciousness of several countries. This movement emerged as futurism in Italy, vorticism in England, Suprematism and Constructivism in Russia and Expressionism in Germany and it also influenced several of the major design and architectural styles of the 20th century and it still prevails to this day as mode of expression in the language of art. (1)

 

 

 

 

(1) http://www.pixel77.com/the-influence-of-art-history-on-modern-design-cubism/

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/cube/hd_cube.htm

http://www.theartstory.org/artist-braque-georges.htm

http://www.theartstory.org/movement-cubism.htm

http://www.theartstory.org/artist-picasso-pablo.htm